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Uterine Cancer

Treatment of Uterine (Endometrium) Cancer

The cancer of the inner wall of the uterus (endometrium) is the most common cancer among female genital cancers. When we look at the structure of the uterus (uterus), muscle tissue (myometrium), the inner wall of the uterus (endometrium) and the cervix (cervix) consists of parts. Different cancers develop from the anatomical structures we have mentioned. For example, cervical cancer that develops from the cervix, sarcoma that develops from the muscle tissue of the uterus, and endometrial cancer that develops from the inner wall of the uterus are different cancers. Their biological behaviors, recurrence rates and treatments also differ.

When uterine cancer is mentioned, cancers that develop from the intrauterine wall (endometrium) are often understood. There are different pathological types of this cancer (endometrioid, serous, clear cell, etc.).


Occurrence age and risk factors

Uterine cancer is frequently seen in women in the menopausal period, but it can also be seen in young women under the age of 40 at a rate of 5-6%. Therefore, WOMEN WITH POST-MENOPAUS VAGINAL BLEEDING SHOULD BE SEEN TO A GYN.

The hormone called estrogen is mostly blamed for the development of uterine cancer. In particular, the deficiency of the hormone called progesterone, which balances the estrogen hormone, can trigger this process.

When we look at the risk factors of uterine cancer, non-childbearing, obese (overweight), diabetic people and people with estrogen-producing ovarian tumors are at risk in this regard.

In addition, when we look at the genetic background, when there are mutations in some genes, which we call Lynch II syndrome, colon cancer, uterine cancer and ovarian cancer can develop.

What are the signs of uterine cancer:

Uterine cancer is a tumor that can give early findings. Therefore, 70% of them can be caught in the early stages.

  • The most important finding is postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.
  • In addition, abnormal vaginal bleeding in the premenopausal period may be an early finding.

The most important point here is that women with post-menopausal bleeding should definitely consult a doctor, women with abnormal bleeding before menopause, those with ovarian failure problems (for example, PCOS), women who are overweight and have heavy bleeding should definitely consult a gynecologist.

How to diagnose:

The diagnosis of uterine (endometrium) cancer is made by biopsy taken from the inner wall of the uterus, which we call abortion procedure among the people. Most of the time, this biopsy can be done with a 3mm cannula, which we call a pipelle, without the need for anesthesia. In women with extreme pain sensitivity, this biopsy can also be performed under anesthesia, which we call mild sedation.

Apart from this, the hysteroscopy can also be diagnosed by visualizing the inside of the uterus with an illuminated optical camera and taking a biopsy.

When uterine cancer is diagnosed, one of the tests such as MRI, Tomography and PET-CT may be requested in line with the recommendations of the gynecological cancer specialist.

Is uterine thickening a sign of cancer?

The inner wall of the uterus is seen as a thin line in the postmenopausal period on ultrasonography. First of all, it should be emphasized again that regardless of the thickness of the uterus, a biopsy should be taken from the inner wall of the uterus from women with postmenopausal bleeding.

When it comes to the question of what should be the measure of the thickness of the uterus in a patient with menopause without bleeding, there are different schools on this subject. In some studies, this value is accepted as 3mm, in some studies it is 5mm. In a scientific study, the rate of uterine cancer was found to be 6.7% in women with a uterine thickness of 11mm and above (≥11mm) without vaginal bleeding.

In my own practice, I do a biopsy if the uterine thickness is 10 mm and above in postmenopausal women who do not have bleeding.

There is no scientific limit for the thickness of the uterus in premenopausal women. Here, the patient's complaints and clinician's recommendations should be acted upon.

Treatment of Uterine (endometrium) Cancer - İstanbul

Treatment of uterine cancer should be performed by gynecological cancer surgeons trained in this field. The main treatment for uterine cancer is surgery to be performed with surgery. The stage of the cancer is decided after this surgery and the need for additional treatment is determined accordingly. Uterine cancer is treated with surgery at a rate of 80% without the need for additional treatment.

When we look at the scope of this surgery, it is the removal of the uterus and ovaries and examination of the lymph nodes.

Gynecological cancer surgery specialist Op.Dr. for the treatment of uterine (endometrium) cancer. Hüseyin Kılıç provides services in his own clinic in Istanbul and performs these surgeries with his experienced team at the contracted hospitals.

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